Summary of several articles on social marketing
Social marketing is the application of marketing principles to enable individual and collective ideas and actions in the pursuit of effective, efficient, equitable, fair and sustained social transformation Saunders 2015. It is a structural, guiding framework based on three theoretical streams:
transformative consumer research and
the capability approach
Co-creating value is the core principle. Social marketing seeks to contribute to solving social challenges through the application of marketing principles, methods and systems to influence not only the behavior of citizens but also the behavior of social service providers, policymakers, politicians and other stakeholders associated with particular social issues, including the for-profit sector, the not-for-profit sector and the media sector. This can be at the individual, community, societal or global level. The marketing lens that it brings to social challenges is defined by a focus on the creation of social value through a process of exchange and the provision of social offerings.
Target markets (citizens, policy-makers or stakeholders) are offered products, ideas, understanding, services, experiences, systems and environments that provide value and advantage. In most cases such social offerings are positive in nature, for example they provide protection or the promise of better health. However, these social offerings can also involve the imposition of restrictions on freedom (such as speed limits on motorways that have collective support and benefit).
Behavioural analysis is undertaken to gather details of what is influencing behavioral patterns and trends. Interventions are developed that seek to influence specific behaviors and clusters of related behaviors. Specific actionable and measurable behavioral objectives and indicators are established. A broad range of behavioral theory is used to analyze, implement and evaluate interventions. These behaviors could be upstream, midstream or downstream.
Policy planning, delivery and evaluation are focused on building understanding and interventions around citizen beliefs, attitudes behaviors, needs and wants
The establishment of collective responsibility and the collective right to wellbeing is developed through a process of engagement and exchange. Citizens, policymakers or stakeholders are engaged in the selection of priorities, and the development, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions.
From French 2015 article
Driven by target market insight data, segmentation analysis, competition analysis and feasibility analysis to develop an effective mix of “types” and “forms” of interventions that are selected and coordinated to produce an effective and efficient program to influence target group behaviors.
Internal (e.g. internal psychological factors, pleasure, desire, risk taking, genetics, and addiction etc.) and external competition is assessed (e.g. economic, social, cultural and environmental influences). Strategies are developed to reduce the impact of negative competition on the target behavior.
Interventions use proven strategy and planning theory and models to construct robust intervention plans that include formative research pretesting, situational analysis, monitoring evaluation and the implementation of learning strategies.
The aim is to develop “actionable insights” and hypotheses about how to help citizens that are drawn from what target markets know, feel, believe and do and the environmental circumstances that influence them. Segmentation using demographic, observational data and psycho-graphic data is used to identify groups that are similar and can be influenced in common ways. Segmentation leads to the development of an interventions mix directly tailored to specific target market needs, values and circumstances
Citizens, stakeholders and other civic and commercial institutions are engaged in the selection, development, testing, delivery and evaluation of interventions. Strategies are developed to maximize the contribution of partner and stakeholder coalitions in achieving targeted behaviors
Compare with individual behaviour change models including stages (Prochaska's TTM) or Advertising Hierarchy of Effects model (HOEM), both of which represent a focussed process steps model with change or buying as the outcome. Based on stimulus response behaviour.
HOEM has AIDA steps aware, interest, desire, act (purchase). It has been compared with cognition, affect and conation (will) models See also choice models and the way context and personal experiences change the way we convert information into action (including bounded rationality and information rejection.