Assignment 4 - Relationship between youth, community activities, education programs and police policies in Bourke
‚ÄčThis model describe the relationships between alienation in young people, police intervention and community support in Bourke area.

Youth alienation from society or family values is main cause of juvenile crime.
Bourke have the highest rate of juvenile detection in NSW. Juvenile justice system exposes involved youth to negative influences, arresting their development, interrupting connections to school, family, and work , and increases the likelihood of further involvement. It also affects their development and opportunities in a variety of ways, such as impaired occupational functioning and higher unemployment.

Reinvesting the costs of court charges and juvenile detention in education programs, community initiative and police reforms, will increase the proportion of youth positively involved in society reducing the costs of justice system.

Population characteristic: 
Bourke population is 2634 (Census 2016) with a youth population aged 10-24 of ~460 (17.5%).

Assumptions:
For this model we assume the following:
25% of youth population is engaged and 75% of youth population is disengaged
Of the disengaged youth population, 50% is involved in a minor crime/low offence and then 75% charged with detention.
After juvenile detention, only a 30% is re-engaged in a positive life-style

Variables:
Change in education system to increase the proportion of youth engaged in a positive life-style:
- Increase availability of short courses to achieve a qualification
- Information about consequences of small crime
- Inclusion in dedicated internship programs

Community based initiatives to support youth at risk and to reconnect them with local society:
Engaging youth in social activity to build a community connection
Improve services available 
Police protocols reformed to reduce proportion of youth charged with a small offence to present in Court:
- small charges escalate to higher level of crime for breaking the conditions
- Adapting police protocols to reduce bail enfrangment or apply alternative methods

Conclusions:
This model is showing a decrease of youth disengaged improving education and community activities. 
The reduction of youth in court and then detention will reduce the costs of the justice system making funds available to invest in policy change in the police department/justice to adapt to specific cohort of youth in Bourke.
When all the variable are not implemented the model is showing the situation at 2016. Changing the proportion of investments in the three variables will improve the results if youth involved in society and not charged with crime.

References:
The Guardian news article  October, 2018
https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/oct/09/unique-community-policing-sees-rates-plunge-in-bourke

Urban Instutite: Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement, Jesse Jannetta and Cameron Okeke, November 2017
https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement.pdf.pdf

KPMG Impact Assessment Report,  November 2018, 
http://www.justreinvest.org.au/impact-of-maranguka-justice-reinvestment/

ABS LGA Census results 2016 
https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/LGA11150?opendocument

Urban Instutite: Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement, Jesse Jannetta and Cameron Okeke, November 2017
https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement.pdf.pdf
The Guardian news article  October, 2018



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