#### Clone of Prey&Predator - 3z MA

##### Bjarke Guldager Ardal

**Physical meaning of the equations**The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

With these two terms the equation above can be interpreted as: the change in the prey's numbers is given by its own growth minus the rate at which it is preyed upon.

PredatorsThe predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

In this equation, {\displaystyle \displaystyle \delta xy} represents the growth of the predator population. (Note the similarity to the predation rate; however, a different constant is used as the rate at which the predator population grows is not necessarily equal to the rate at which it consumes the prey). {\displaystyle \displaystyle \gamma y} represents the loss rate of the predators due to either natural death or emigration; it leads to an exponential decay in the absence of prey.

Hence the equation expresses the change in the predator population as growth fueled by the food supply, minus natural death.

- 9 months 1 day ago

#### Clone of Clone of Fixed Quota versus Fixed Effort

##### travis smith

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Modelo da populacao de samambaias

##### joD. Roger

- 1 year 9 months ago

#### Clone of Fixed Quota versus Fixed Effort

##### Jessica Turner

- 2 months 3 weeks ago

#### Clone of Population Projection (USA)

##### Chase Steenburg

- 9 months 4 weeks ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### luke vanlaningham

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

With these two terms the equation above can be interpreted as: the change in the prey's numbers is given by its own growth minus the rate at which it is preyed upon.

PredatorsThe predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

In this equation, {\displaystyle \displaystyle \delta xy} represents the growth of the predator population. (Note the similarity to the predation rate; however, a different constant is used as the rate at which the predator population grows is not necessarily equal to the rate at which it consumes the prey). {\displaystyle \displaystyle \gamma y} represents the loss rate of the predators due to either natural death or emigration; it leads to an exponential decay in the absence of prey.

Hence the equation expresses the change in the predator population as growth fueled by the food supply, minus natural death.

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 6 days ago

#### Clone of Population Ecological Impact-EL-Salvador using IPAT

##### testing user

Affluence is explained by ecological footprints (90% fit according to lecture). Technology is explained by CO2 emissions per unit of GDP

- 8 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Jacob Adkins

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

With these two terms the equation above can be interpreted as: the change in the prey's numbers is given by its own growth minus the rate at which it is preyed upon.

PredatorsThe predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

In this equation, {\displaystyle \displaystyle \delta xy} represents the growth of the predator population. (Note the similarity to the predation rate; however, a different constant is used as the rate at which the predator population grows is not necessarily equal to the rate at which it consumes the prey). {\displaystyle \displaystyle \gamma y} represents the loss rate of the predators due to either natural death or emigration; it leads to an exponential decay in the absence of prey.

Hence the equation expresses the change in the predator population as growth fueled by the food supply, minus natural death.

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Vivian Velazco

**Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system. For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system. The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined. Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed. Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most and predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:**

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

- 11 months 4 weeks ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Cameron Demler

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Population Projection (USA)

##### James Tonrey

- 2 months 3 weeks ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Sean Field

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Cameron Demler

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Jordan

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Samuel Kaelin

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Z602 Population with four age groups

##### Isaiah Ritzmann

Population model where the population is summarized in four age groups (children, parents, older people, old people). Used as a base population model for dealing with issues such as employment, care for the elderly, pensions dynamics, etc.

- 2 months 3 weeks ago

#### Clone of Nature and People, together

##### Rhys Almario

- 1 year 1 month ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Proctor Mercer

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Lotka-Volterra Model: Prey-Predator Simulation

##### Robert Janjic

Predator-prey models are the building masses of the bio-and environments as bio masses are become out of their asset masses. Species contend, advance and scatter essentially to look for assets to support their battle for their very presence. Contingent upon their particular settings of uses, they can take the types of asset resource-consumer, plant-herbivore, parasite-have, tumor cells- immune structure, vulnerable irresistible collaborations, and so on. They manage the general misfortune win connections and thus may have applications outside of biological systems. At the point when focused connections are painstakingly inspected, they are regularly in actuality a few types of predator-prey communication in simulation.

**Looking at Lotka-Volterra Model:**

The well
known Italian mathematician Vito Volterra proposed a differential condition
model to clarify the watched increment in predator fish in the Adriatic Sea
during World War I. Simultaneously in the United States, the conditions
contemplated by Volterra were determined freely by Alfred Lotka (1925) to
portray a theoretical synthetic response wherein the concoction fixations
waver. The Lotka-Volterra model is the least complex model of predator-prey
communications. It depends on direct per capita development rates, which are
composed as **f=b−py** and **g=rx−d. **

A detailed explanation of the parameters:

- The parameter b is the development rate of species x (the prey) without communication with species y (the predators). Prey numbers are reduced by these collaborations: The per capita development rate diminishes (here directly) with expanding y, conceivably getting to be negative.
- The parameter p estimates the effect of predation on x˙/x.
- The parameter d is the death rate of species y without connection with species x.
- The term rx means the net rate of development of the predator population in light of the size of the prey population.

Reference:

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Predator-prey_model

- 5 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Prey&Predator

##### Robert Rußell

**Physical meaning of the equations**The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

- 5 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of Population of France (Developed) Over Time

##### Santiago Arp

- 1 year 1 month ago

#### Clone of Fixed Quota versus Fixed Effort

##### Ian Chandi

- 2 months 2 weeks ago

#### Clone of Prey&Predator

##### Chiara Birk

**Physical meaning of the equations**The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

- 5 months 1 week ago

#### Clone of MAT375 Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")

##### Jacob Adkins

**Clone of Bio103 Predator-Prey Model ("Lotka'Volterra")**

Tags: Education, Chaos, Ecology, Biology, PopulationThanks to Insight Author: John Petersen

Edits by Andy Long

Everything that follows the dashes was created by John Petersen (or at least came from his Insight model). I just wanted to make a few comments.

We are looking at Hare and Lynx, of course. Clone this insight, and change the names.

Then read the text below, to get acquainted with one of the most important and well-known examples of a simple system of differential equations in all of mathematics.

http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/mat375/mathematica/Lotka-Volterra.nb------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic simulation modelers are particularly interested in understanding and being able to distinguish between the behavior of stocks and flows that result from internal interactions and those that result from external forces acting on a system.

For some time modelers have been particularly interested in internal interactions that result in stable oscillations in the absence of any external forces acting on a system.

The model in this last scenario was independently developed by Alfred Lotka (1924) and Vito Volterra (1926). Lotka was interested in understanding internal dynamics that might explain oscillations in moth and butterfly populations and the parasitoids that attack them. Volterra was interested in explaining an increase in coastal populations of predatory fish and a decrease in their prey that was observed during World War I when human fishing pressures on the predator species declined.

Both discovered that a relatively simple model is capable of producing the cyclical behaviors they observed.

Since that time, several researchers have been able to reproduce the modeling dynamics in simple experimental systems consisting of only predators and prey. It is now generally recognized that the model world that Lotka and Volterra produced is too simple to explain the complexity of most predator-prey dynamics in nature. And yet, the model significantly advanced our understanding of the critical role of feedback in predator-prey interactions and in feeding relationships that result in community dynamics.

The Lotka–Volterra model makes a number of assumptions about the environment and evolution of the predator and prey populations:

1. The prey population finds ample food at all times.2. The food supply of the predator population depends entirely on the size of the prey population.3. The rate of change of population is proportional to its size.4. During the process, the environment does not change in favour of one species and genetic adaptation is inconsequential.5. Predators have limitless appetite.

As differential equations are used, the solution is deterministic and continuous. This, in turn, implies that the generations of both the predator and prey are continually overlapping.[23]

**Prey**

When multiplied out, the prey equation becomesdx/dt = αx - βxy The prey are assumed to have an unlimited food supply, and to reproduce exponentially unless subject to predation; this exponential growth is represented in the equation above by the term αx. The rate of predation upon the prey is assumed to be proportional to the rate at which the predators and the prey meet; this is represented above by βxy. If either x or y is zero then there can be no predation.

The predator equation becomes

dy/dt = -

Education Chaos Ecology Biology Population Mat375 Lotka Volterra

- 3 months 1 week ago