Your browser (Internet Explorer 8 or lower) is out of date. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. Learn how to update your browser.

X

Menu

Health

Benign prostatic hypertrophy: cause, symptoms, and treatment

Muhammad Siraj

The prostate is a gland that is part of the male reproductive system, with a hazelnut shape. It is located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, surrounding the proximal urethra. It consists of two components: a glandular (alveolar tubule) and a supporting connective tissue stroma divided into three zones. A plant that occupies 25%, a transitional one that occupies 5% and a peripheral one that occupies 70%. Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) occurs in the area surrounding the urethra (transition zone).

GROWTH: between 10 and 20 years, the highest growth occurs, reaching its normal weight of 20gr. Then it remains the same for 25 more years and then begins to increase again.

•    At 60 years, 50% have histological changes compatible with BPH.

•    At 80 years, 95% have compatible changes.

•    10% of patients debut with acute urinary retention.

•    25% of 80-year-old patients receive treatment for BPH.

The prostatic hypertrophy is an overgrowth of the different components of the normal gland. It is not cancer and does not represent an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Symptom

Less than half of men with BPH have symptoms of the disease. These are due to compression of the urethra by excessive prostate growth and may appear in each patient with very different growths. It is the so-called prostatic syndrome:

•    Slow or delayed onset of urinary flow

•    Decreased caliber and force of the jet

•    Elongation of the emptying

•    Incomplete emptying of the bladder

•    Drip after urinating

•    Need for effort when urinating

In more advanced stages, another class of symptoms, called irritative symptoms, due to the alteration of the bladder function due to the excessive effort made by the bladder to counteract the obstacle to emptying by a urethral obstruction, and may also occur. These symptoms are more difficult to reverse with the treatment of BPH with BPH cure.

•    Sudden and sudden urinary urgency

•    Increased urination frequency

•    Need to urinate 2 or more times per night

•    Incontinence

•    Painful urination or bloody urine (this may indicate an infection)

Left to its natural evolution, the obstruction caused by BPH ends up overcoming the bladder's excessive effort, producing urinary retention that can occasionally lead to a deterioration of renal function.

Signs and exams

Given the high incidence of this problem after 50 years, it is recommended, from this age, regular consultation with the urologist. Generally, in order to arrive at the diagnosis, the clinic presented by the patient and a simple physical examination is sufficient. This consists of a digital rectal examination, where the doctor can feel the size and shape of the prostate gland, revealing an enlarged and firm prostate. This can also help differentiate BPH and prostate cancer, where the gland is of greater consistency. The diagnosis can be completed with other types of tests, including:

•    Tests to quantify the degree of obstruction to the voiding flow.

•    Measurement of the rhythm of the urinary flow.

•    Studies of the flow pressure.

•    Tests to evaluate the bladder and renal function and rule out another associated pathology:

•    Intravenous urography or radiography plus ultrasound.

•    Urinalysis to verify the presence of blood or infection.

•    Urine culture to look for signs of infection.

•    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test in BPH only serves to rule out prostate cancer.

•    Cystoscopy to visualize the prostate and bladder if surgery is needed.

Treatment

The effectiveness of any treatment is measured in two terms: improvement of symptoms and improvement in the analysis of maximum urinary flow.

The prostatic hyperplasia treatment could be divided into three areas:

Medical treatment: alpha-blockers and alpha 5-reductase inhibitors.

Minimally invasive treatment: consist of the placement of prostheses (stents) using endoscopic techniques that allow a greater caliber of the urethra during urination. They are for patients not candidates for more aggressive surgery.

Surgical treatment: radical prostatectomy, TUIP (transurethral incision), TURP (transurethral resection). Most men who undergo this surgery report improvement in the flow of urine and symptoms. The possible complications are impotence, urinary incontinence, retrograde ejaculation (semen that flows in the opposite direction towards the bladder instead of going out through the penis), infertility and urethral stenosis. The percentages of these complications vary depending on the surgical procedure that the patient and the doctor decide is the best.

The choice of the moment of intervention is based on the severity of the symptoms, and their inability to be controlled by medical treatment. The choice of the appropriate technique depends on the size and shape of the prostate. They are objective indications (independent of the symptoms) of surgery:

•    Kidney injury due to obstruction (hydronephrosis)

•    Bladder lithiasis

•    Blood in recurrent urine

•    Urinary retention

•    Recurrent urinary tract infections

In summary, the choice of appropriate treatment, therefore, is based on the severity of the symptoms, the extent to which they affect the individual's lifestyle and the presence of any other medical condition. Treatment options include "await with careful vigilance", lifestyle changes, drug therapies, and surgical methods.

Health

  • 11 months 3 weeks ago

What is better, buttercream or fondant on cake?

kabir hussan
Buttercream cakes are a type of cake that is enjoyed by many people around the world, but you may wonder, what is a buttercream cake? Is it butter or cream? But how does it compare to the ever popular fondant finished cakes?

These cakes are enjoyed for many occasions, for example they are commonly purchased for wedding cakes, baby showers, anniversaries or, most commonly, as a birthday cake. When choosing a type of cake for these events, you first need to decide, do you want buttercream cake or fondant cake? What would you prefer and what would your guests prefer. There are different benefits to both.

If you are confused at this point, then let me explain some of the key difference between the two different types. Frosting is also known as icing, it is a type of cake finish that covers the entire cake in a layer of thick and often coloured sheet of ‘fondant’ which has its own unique almondy flavour, some people love it, some people do not. Its benefit is that it looks smooth and offers the cake a strong structure that can be of assistance when trying to hold together the weight of a multiple layered cake that is often wanted and required for weddings.

Buttercream however is a totally different game. It is often used on naked cakes and it does not cover the whole cake.  Buttercream is made by blending together butter and sugar, it is whipped using a stand mixer, this is compared to fondant which is a combination of water, glycerine and powdered sugar, which is rolled out thinly to create the layer which will be placed over the entire cake.

Gone are the times when royal icing (another name for fondant) are the only options, fondant was used by the royal families of france and england to celebrate their weddings and birthdays. They would be beautiful and hold their shape, and it means that elaborate decorations could be put on display for guests, but the flavour was often lacking in these cakes and it has started to become less popular. The cake trend these days, which is being confronted by cake shops like Passiontree Velvet in Australia, which offers a range of occasion cakes available at all times from many shops. The trend these days is moving towards more naked style and buttercream style cakes, and often they have flowers and floral displays on them. Buttercream has the added benefit that it can hold many different colours and flavours to compliment the actual cake, and often the flavours are going to be popular common ones like chocolate, strawberry, vanilla and passionfruit.

Saying all this, there are benefits to using both. The benefits of using fondant is that is has a smoother and glossier finish, it is easier to control the thickness with the correct rolling technique. The texture is chewy, which to some is a benefit and adds to the experience of eating cake. Fondant is the only type of cake finish which can give you the shiny and pearly white finish which is classic on wedding cakes and lends itself well to being in photographs at those weddings. The fondant is excellent at holding its structure when you are building it up to greater heights and it also puts a seal around the cake to keep in the moisture and allow it to maintain its texture.

Compared to Buttercream, the benefits of using buttercream are that it is less sweet which allows for the flavour details to come through more if it's not just plain vanilla flavour. Al;so the smell is not as artificial and to some people it can be off putting. The buttercream is not as heavy so it does not require as dense cake to hold it up. Buttercream cakes can have light and fluffy sponge which is more enjoyable for the people eating it. It can be flavoured with almost anything and it will greatly benefit the cake.

Health Food Birthdaycake

  • 1 year 2 months ago

Improving Social Services for Women

Jade Herrscher
I will be evaluating the needs of the community in Green Bay, WI in terms of the addiction treatment system. 
  • Factors that lead to addiction.  This links to
  • Services women have expressed a need for or services that will likely be beneficial based on contributing factors
  • The services that are currently available at the Women's Empowerment Center and otherwise found in the community
  • Assessment of services accessibility, usefulness, and ability for women to locate.  Also included is an assessment of how (women feel) services can be improved.
The last category consists of suggestions for improvement of current services or new services to implement.

Health

  • 3 years 3 weeks ago

Diabetes

John Meyer
Simple goal seeking loop for type 1 diabetes, describing relationship between blood glucose level, insulin injections, and food consumption, seeking to achieve healthy balanced blood glucose levels in the body.

Diabetes Health

  • 5 years 4 months ago

Configurable Conveyor Pattern

Synkretik
Example of Configurable Conveyor Pattern (vectorized conveyor with multiple 'conveyor speeds')
See Taking The Pill https://getsatisfaction.com/insightmaker/topics/delay-in-taking-the-pill for the problem statement

Health Conveyor

  • 1 year 7 months ago

INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE IMPACT ON POLLUTION AND RESOURCES

Guy Lakeman

INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE IMPACT ON POLLUTION AND RESOURCES THE 2017 MODEL (BY GUY LAKEMAN) EMPHASIZES THE PEAK IN POLLUTION BEING CREATED BY OVERPOPULATION WITH THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF ARABLE LAND NOW BEING 1.5 TIMES OVER A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (PASSED IN 1990) AND NOW INCREASING IN LOSS OF HUMAN SUSTAINABILITY DUE TO SEA RISE AND EXTREME GLOBAL WATER RELOCATION IN WEATHER CHANGES IN FLOODS AND DROUGHTS AND EXTENDED TROPICAL AND HORSE LATTITUDE CYCLONE ACTIVITY AROUND HADLEY CELLS

The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors.

THIS MODEL BY GUY LAKEMAN, FROM METRICS OBTAINED USING A MORE COMPREHENSIVE VENSIM SOFTWARE MODEL, SHOWS CURRENT CONDITIONS CREATED BY THE LATEST WEATHER EXTREMES AND LOSS OF ARABLE LAND BY THE  ALBEDO EFECT MELTING THE POLAR CAPS TOGETHER WITH NORTHERN JETSTREAM SHIFT NORTHWARDS, AND A NECESSITY TO ACT BEFORE THERE IS HUGE SUFFERING.BY SETTING THE NEW ECOLOGICAL POLICIES TO 2015 WE CAN SEE THAT SOME POPULATIONS CAN BE SAVED BUT CITIES WILL SUFFER MOST. CURRENT MARKET SATURATION PLATEAU OF SOLID PRODUCTS AND BEHAVIORAL SINK FACTORS ARE ALSO ADDED

Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amount of non-renewable resources (which could occur through the development of better exploration technologies) improve our future? Also, experiment with the start date of a low birth-rate, environmentally focused policy.

Environment Demographics Population Growth Population Weather Climate Failure Death Mortality Science Technology Engineering Strategy Economics Politics Fertility Health Services Resources Land Jobs Labor Urban Industrial Rural Lifetime Pollution Regeneration Yield Ocean Sea Fish Plants Animals Flood Drought Loss Hurricane Typhoon Tornado Cyclone Agriculture Food Energy Nuclear Solar Resource Graphene Silicene Transport

  • 8 months 3 weeks ago

Multiple Cause Diagram (MCD) to explore treatment options of chronic blepharitis

Hanns-Jürgen Hodann
Multiple Cause Diagrams (MCDs) can be used to find solutions to systemic problems. This diagram tries to explore treatment options that could theoretically be available to a person who has been diagnosed with a particular type of blepharitis (inflammation of eye lids). This type of blepharitis often leads to 'pink eye' and  'dry eye syndrome'. It  is caused by rosacea of the eye lids, a systemic disease which can only be controlled but not cured.  The MCD also assumes that the patient's tear glands do not produce enough tears, which  further complicates his eye condition.  The broken green lines indicate treatment options.Their aim is to weaken or disrupt links that keep the malignant process going.
Hypothetically a person afflicted by this condition could construct a MCD similar to the one shown, based on authoritative information from his ophthalmologist and bonafide medical websites. It could serve to improve  his /her  understand of their condition and the treatment  available. As such, I believe this diagram demonstrates the usefulness of MCDs. 

Health Posterior Blepharitis Dry Eye Syndrome Meibomitis Rosacea Ocular

  • 1 year 2 months ago

DRY EYE CYCLE

Hanns-Jürgen Hodann
Ophthalmologist Craig Blackwell described the 'Dry Eye Cycle' in two excellent videos with graphic descriptions. From his description it becomes clear that the Dry Eye Cycle really consist of two self-reinforcing feedback loops. I have constructed these feedback loops here because they help explain the cycle, and understanding it may be very useful for suffers of the often debilitating 'dry eye syndrome '. The process usually starts with one of two deficiencies: the oil secreted from oil glands is too thick and does not adequately cover the aqueous film leading to evaporation and dryness or tear glands do not produce enough tears.  Dr. Blackwell stresses the role of inflammation which can lead to the progressive worsening of the condition and  which should be controlled. He suggests various treatments. I highly recommend watching the videos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooYcjzNtn58

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TwpWKCM31JI

Dry Eye Syndrome Health Ophthalmology

  • 2 years 11 months ago

ITS_831-Tutorial-1-Disease-Dynamics

Sai Krishnanand Nagavelli
This insight shows the relation between a healthy set of people and an infected set using the primitive infection rate variable as the "rate" that defines how many people get into the infected set at which rate. The second part of the insight shows how many people get recovered and move into Immune set by the rate defined through Recovery Rate variable.

Disease Dynamics Health Infection Immunity Rate Of Recovery.

  • 3 months 3 weeks ago

Pages