Your browser (Internet Explorer 8 or lower) is out of date. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. Learn how to update your browser.

X

Menu

Estuary

Estuarine salinity 1D model

Joao G. Ferreira
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the upper slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

The lower slider allows you to simulate a variable river flow, and understand how dispersion compensates for changes in freshwater input.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 1 year 4 months ago

Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

Andre Simoes
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 3 years 9 months ago

Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

Andre Simoes
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 3 years 9 months ago

Estuarine Nitrates 4 boxes model

Tiago Gageiro
[ This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.
dN/dt = (1/A)d(QN)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dN/dx)  (1)
Where N: Nitrates (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).
For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:
VdN/dt = QdN - (d(EA)/dx) dN (2)
EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)
We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:
Q(Nr-N1)=E(b)r,1(Nr-N1)-E(b)1,2(N1-N2) (3)
Where Sn: river nitrates(=5), N1: mean estuary Nitrates for box 1; N2: mean estuary nitrates for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 
 Therefore:
QN1=E(b)1,2(N1-N2) (4)
At steady state
E(b)1,2 = QN1/(N1-N2) (5) ]

Estuary Salinity

  • 3 years 9 months ago

Estuarine Salinity 4 boxes model

Tiago Gageiro
[ This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.
dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (1) Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1). For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes: VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2) EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q) We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as: Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3) Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore: QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4) At steady state E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5) ]

Estuary Salinity

  • 3 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 10 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 10 months ago

Clone of Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 10 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1D model

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Clone of Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1D model

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1D model

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Clone of Estuarine salinity 1 box model (J. Gomes Ferreira)

João Serra
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

Environment Estuary Hydrodynamics Salinity

  • 2 years 10 months ago

Clone of Estuary Salinity 4 Boxes Model

João Serra
This model represents the four-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation (1) for an estuary.

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx)  (1)

Where S: salinity (kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume.For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient (m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q)

We can rewrite (2) for the first estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-S1)=E(b)r,1(Sr-S1)-E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (3)
Where Sr: river salinity (=0), S1: mean estuary salinity for box 1; S2: mean estuary salinity for box 2; E(b)r,1: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary box 1; and E(b)1,2: dispersion coefficient between the estuary boxes 1 and 2. 

Because we're at the head of the estuary, E(b)r,1 is zero, wich means: no salt enters the river. Sr is also zero, because the river salinity is zero. Therefore:

QS1=E(b)1,2(S1-S2) (4)

At steady state

E(b)1,2 = QS1/(S1-S2) (5)

Estuary Salinity Tagus Tejo

  • 2 years 9 months ago

Pages