Simple model to illustrate Steele's equation for primary production of phytoplankton.  The equation is:  Ppot = Pmax I/Iopt exp(1-I/Iopt)  Where:  Ppot: Potential production (e.g. d-1, or mg C m-2 d-1) Pmax: Maximum production (same units as Ppot) I: Light energy at depth of interest (e.g. uE m-2 s-
Simple model to illustrate Steele's equation for primary production of phytoplankton.

The equation is:

Ppot = Pmax I/Iopt exp(1-I/Iopt)

Where:

Ppot: Potential production (e.g. d-1, or mg C m-2 d-1)
Pmax: Maximum production (same units as Ppot)
I: Light energy at depth of interest (e.g. uE m-2 s-1)
Iopt: Light energy at which Pmax occurs (same units as I)

The model contains no state variables, just illustrates the rate of production, by making the value of I equal to the timestep (in days). Move the slider to the left for more pronounced photoinhibition, to the right for photosaturation.
 Work Cited   E., Kaplan. "Biomes of the World: Tundra." Alpine Biome. Hong Kong: Marshall Cavendish Corporation., n.d. Web. 23 May 2017.      http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm
Work Cited


E., Kaplan. "Biomes of the World: Tundra." Alpine Biome. Hong Kong: Marshall Cavendish Corporation., n.d. Web. 23 May 2017.     http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm
The simulation integrates or sums (INTEG) the Nj population, with a change of Delta N in each generation, starting with an initial value of 5. The equation for DeltaN is a version of  Nj+1 = Nj  + mu (1- Nj / Nmax ) Nj  the maximum population is set to be one million, and the growth rate constant mu
The simulation integrates or sums (INTEG) the Nj population, with a change of Delta N in each generation, starting with an initial value of 5.
The equation for DeltaN is a version of 
Nj+1 = Nj  + mu (1- Nj / Nmax ) Nj
the maximum population is set to be one million, and the growth rate constant mu = 3.
 
Nj: is the “number of items” in our current generation.

Delta Nj: is the “change in number of items” as we go from the present generation into the next generation. This is just the number of items born minus the number of items who have died.

mu: is the growth or birth rate parameter, similar to that in the exponential growth and decay model. However, as we extend our model it will no longer be the actual growth rate, but rather just a constant that tends to control the actual growth rate without being directly proportional to it.

F(Nj) = mu(1‐Nj/Nmax): is our model for the effective “growth rate”, a rate that decreases as the number of items approaches the maximum allowed by external factors such as food supply, disease or predation. (You can think of mu as the growth or birth rate in the absence of population pressure from other items.) We write this rate as F(Nj), which is a mathematical way of saying F is affected by the number of items, i.e., “F is a function of Nj”. It combines both growth and all the various environmental constraints on growth into a single function. This is a good approach to modeling; start with something that works (exponential growth) and then modify it incrementally, while still incorporating the working model.

Nj+1 = Nj + Delta Nj : This is a mathematical way to say, “The new number of items equals the old number of items plus the change in number of items”.

Nj/Nmax: is what fraction a population has reached of the maximum "carrying capacity" allowed by the external environment. We use this fraction to change the overall growth rate of the population. In the real world, as well as in our model, it is possible for a population to be greater than the maximum population (which is usually an average of many years), at least for a short period of time. This means that we can expect fluctuations in which Nj/Nmax is greater than 1.

This equation is a form of what is known as the logistic map or equation. It is a map because it "maps'' the population in one year into the population of the next year. It is "logistic'' in the military sense of supplying a population with its needs. It a nonlinear equation because it contains a term proportional to Nj^2 and not just Nj. The logistic map equation is also an example of discrete mathematics. It is discrete because the time variable j assumes just integer values, and consequently the variables Nj+1 and Nj do not change continuously into each other, as would a function N(t). In addition to the variables Nj and j, the equation also contains the two parameters mu, the growth rate, and Nmax, the maximum population. You can think of these as "constants'' whose values are determined from external sources and remain fixed as one year of items gets mapped into the next year. However, as part of viewing the computer as a laboratory in which to experiment, and as part of the scientific process, you should vary the parameters in order to explore how the model reacts to changes in them.
This model is a classic simulation of the production cycle in the ocean, including the effects of the thermocline in switching off advection of dissolved nutrients and detritus to the surface layer.  It illustrates a number of interesting features including the coupling of three state variables in a
This model is a classic simulation of the production cycle in the ocean, including the effects of the thermocline in switching off advection of dissolved nutrients and detritus to the surface layer.

It illustrates a number of interesting features including the coupling of three state variables in a closed cycle, the use of time to control the duration of advection, and the modulus function for cycling annual temperature data over multiple years.

The model state variables are expressed in nitrogen units (mg N m-3), and the calibration is based on:

Baliño, B.M. 1996. Eutrophication of the North Sea, 1980-1990: An evaluation of anthropogenic nutrient inputs using a 2D phytoplankton production model. Dr. scient. thesis, University of Bergen.
 
Fransz, H.G. & Verhagen, J.H.G. 1985. Modelling Research on the Production Cycle of Phytoplankton in the Southern Bight of the Northn Sea in Relation to Riverborne Nutrient Loads. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 19 (3/4): 241-250.

This model was first implemented in PowerSim some years ago by one of my M.Sc. students, who then went on to become a Buddhist monk. Although this is a very Zen model, as far as I'm aware, the two facts are unrelated.
 A simulation illustrating simple predator prey dynamics. You have two populations.

A simulation illustrating simple predator prey dynamics. You have two populations.

This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly
referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out
in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until
around the 1990s.  

 The cotton industry expanded dramatically in Central America
after WW2,
This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until around the 1990s.

The cotton industry expanded dramatically in Central America after WW2, increasing from 20,000 hectares to 463,000 in the late 1970s. This expansion was accompanied by a huge increase in industrial pesticide application which would eventually become the downfall of the industry.

The primary pest for cotton production, bol weevil, became increasingly resistant to chemical pesticides as they were applied each year. The application of pesticides also caused new pests to appear, such as leafworms, cotton aphids and whitefly, which in turn further fuelled increased application of pesticides.

The treadmill resulted in massive increases in pesticide applications: in the early years they were only applied a few times per season, but this application rose to up to 40 applications per season by the 1970s; accounting for over 50% of the costs of production in some regions.

The skyrocketing costs associated with increasing pesticide use were one of the key factors that led to the dramatic decline of the cotton industry in Central America: decreasing from its peak in the 1970s to less than 100,000 hectares in the 1990s. “In its wake, economic ruin and environmental devastation were left” as once thriving towns became ghost towns, and once fertile soils were wasted, eroded and abandoned (Lappe, 1998).

Sources: Douglas L. Murray (1994), Cultivating Crisis: The Human Cost of Pesticides in Latin America, pp35-41; Francis Moore Lappe et al (1998), World Hunger: 12 Myths, 2nd Edition, pp54-55.

Two households with PV systems and Electric Vehicles, sharing a battery and connected to the grid. What are the advantages?
Two households with PV systems and Electric Vehicles, sharing a battery and connected to the grid. What are the advantages?


Simple energy balance model of a planet with albedo, ocean, and atmosphere.  This simulation models the stock and flow of energy between a
star, a planet’s surface (primarily its oceans, which are the largest reservoir
of heat), and space.The assumptions governing this model are:  1. The planet abso
Simple energy balance model of a planet with albedo, ocean, and atmosphere.

This simulation models the stock and flow of energy between a star, a planet’s surface (primarily its oceans, which are the largest reservoir of heat), and space.The assumptions governing this model are:

1. The planet absorbs a fraction of the shortwave radiation arriving from its star, with that fraction given by (1-A), where A is albedo. 

2. The planet radiates longwave infrared radiation into space, with the amount of radiation into space given by σΤe4, where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and Te is the temperature of the effective radiating level.

3. The atmospheric lapse rate is 6 K/km.

4. If there is an imbalance between shortwave radiation absorbed and longwave radiation emitted, the imbalance affects the temperature of the planet. However, it does not do so instantaneously – the imbalance must heat or cool the mixed layer of the ocean.

5. At the start of the simulation, the planet is extremely close to equilibrium given its default parameters. If any of these parameters are changed, the planet will be out of equilibrium, and will have to adjust.

The Streeter-Phelps oxygen dynamics model was originally developed in 1925, almost a century ago.  Play  You can explore the model by hitting the simulate button, and you can use the three sliders below to (i) switch the spill on or off (1 or 0); (ii) define the day when the spill occurs (0 to 15);
The Streeter-Phelps oxygen dynamics model was originally developed in 1925, almost a century ago.

Play

You can explore the model by hitting the simulate button, and you can use the three sliders below to (i) switch the spill on or off (1 or 0); (ii) define the day when the spill occurs (0 to 15); and (iii) make the model use a constant water temperature (20oC) or a (pre-defined) variable one.

A variable temperature affects oxygen saturation, and therefore also the oxygen deficit and oxygen concentration.

Every model element shows an = sign when you hover over it, and if you click the sign you can view the underlying equation.

If you want to edit the model, you need to create an account in InsightMaker and then clone the model and adapt it to your needs.

Study

Below is a detailed explanation of the model concept.

The model calculates the oxygen deficit (D), defined as Cs-C, where Cs is the saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen (based on temperature, and salinity if applicable), and C is the dissolved oxygen concentration.

Since D = Cs-C, it follows that:
dD/dt = -dC/dt

The rate of change of oxygen concentration with time (dC/dt) depends on two factors, organic decomposition and aeration.

dC/dt = Ka.D - Kd.L

The first term on the right side of the equation is aeration (which adds oxygen to the water), calculated by means of the temperature-dependent aeration parameter Ka.

Ka is also a function of Kr, which depends on wind speed (U) and water depth (z).

The sink term represents oxygen consumption through mineralization (bacterial decomposition) of organic matter.

The organic load L decays in time (or in space, e.g. along a river) according to a first order equation, i.e. dL/dt = -Kd.L

This equation can be integrated to yield L = Lo.exp(Kd.t), where Kd is the decay constant.
Daisyworld is a classic model of planetary feedbacks, due to Andrew Watson and James Lovelock (1983). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisyworld.
Daisyworld is a classic model of planetary feedbacks, due to Andrew Watson and James Lovelock (1983). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisyworld.
Simple model to illustrate oyster growth based on primary production of Phytoplankton as a state variable, forced by light and nutrients, running for a yearly period.  Phytoplankton growth based on on Steele's and Michaelis-Menten equations), where:   Primary Production=(([Pmax]*[I]/[Iopt]*exp(1-[I]
Simple model to illustrate oyster growth based on primary production of Phytoplankton as a state variable, forced by light and nutrients, running for a yearly period.

Phytoplankton growth based on on Steele's and Michaelis-Menten equations), where: 

Primary Production=(([Pmax]*[I]/[Iopt]*exp(1-[I]/[Iopt])*[S])/([Ks]+[S]))

Pmax: Maximum production (d-1)
I: Light energy at depth of interest (uE m-2 s-1)
Iopt: Light energy at which Pmax occurs (uE m-2 s-1)
S: Nutrient concentration (umol N L-1)
Ks: Half saturation constant for nutrient (umol N L-1).

Further developments:
- Nutrients as state variable in cycle with detritus from phytoplankton and oyster biomass.
- Light limited by the concentration of phytoplankton.
- Temperature effect on phytoplankton and Oyster growth.


all pictures sourced from google images
all pictures sourced from google images

My AP Environmental Homework for the Cats Over Borneo Assignment
My AP Environmental Homework for the Cats Over Borneo Assignment
This model provides a dynamic simulation of the Sverdrup (1953) paper on the vernal blooming of phytoplankton.  The model simulates the dynamics of the mixed layer over the year, and illustrates how it's depth variation leads to conditions that trigger the spring bloom. In order for the bloom to occ
This model provides a dynamic simulation of the Sverdrup (1953) paper on the vernal blooming of phytoplankton.

The model simulates the dynamics of the mixed layer over the year, and illustrates how it's depth variation leads to conditions that trigger the spring bloom. In order for the bloom to occur, production of algae in the water column must exceed respiration.

This can only occur if vertical mixing cannot transport algae into deeper, darker water, for long periods, where they are unable to grow.

Sverdrup, H.U., 1953. On conditions for the vernal blooming of phytoplankton. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Exp. Mer, 18: 287-295
Clone of Pesticide Use in Central America for Lab work        This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until around the 1990s.     The cotto
Clone of Pesticide Use in Central America for Lab work


This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until around the 1990s.

The cotton industry expanded dramatically in Central America after WW2, increasing from 20,000 hectares to 463,000 in the late 1970s. This expansion was accompanied by a huge increase in industrial pesticide application which would eventually become the downfall of the industry.

The primary pest for cotton production, bol weevil, became increasingly resistant to chemical pesticides as they were applied each year. The application of pesticides also caused new pests to appear, such as leafworms, cotton aphids and whitefly, which in turn further fuelled increased application of pesticides. 

The treadmill resulted in massive increases in pesticide applications: in the early years they were only applied a few times per season, but this application rose to up to 40 applications per season by the 1970s; accounting for over 50% of the costs of production in some regions. 

The skyrocketing costs associated with increasing pesticide use were one of the key factors that led to the dramatic decline of the cotton industry in Central America: decreasing from its peak in the 1970s to less than 100,000 hectares in the 1990s. “In its wake, economic ruin and environmental devastation were left” as once thriving towns became ghost towns, and once fertile soils were wasted, eroded and abandoned (Lappe, 1998). 

Sources: Douglas L. Murray (1994), Cultivating Crisis: The Human Cost of Pesticides in Latin America, pp35-41; Francis Moore Lappe et al (1998), World Hunger: 12 Myths, 2nd Edition, pp54-55.

Simple model to illustrate Michaelis-Menten equation for nutrient uptake by phytoplankton.  The equation is:  P = Ppot S / (Ks + S)  Where:  P: Nutrient-limited production (e.g. d-1, or mg C m-2 d-1) Ppot: Potential production (same units as P) S: Nutrient concentation (e.g. umol N L-1) Ks: Half sat
Simple model to illustrate Michaelis-Menten equation for nutrient uptake by phytoplankton.

The equation is:

P = Ppot S / (Ks + S)

Where:

P: Nutrient-limited production (e.g. d-1, or mg C m-2 d-1)
Ppot: Potential production (same units as P)
S: Nutrient concentation (e.g. umol N L-1)
Ks: Half saturation constant for nutrient (same units as S)

The model contains no state variables, just illustrates the rate of production, by making the value of S equal to the timestep (in days). Move the slider to the left for more pronounced hyperbolic response, to the right for linear response.
Simple model of the global economy, the global carbon cycle, and planetary energy balance.    The planetary energy balance model is a two-box model, with shallow and deep ocean heat reservoirs. The carbon cycle model is a 4-box model, with the atmosphere, shallow ocean, deep ocean, and terrestrial c
Simple model of the global economy, the global carbon cycle, and planetary energy balance.

The planetary energy balance model is a two-box model, with shallow and deep ocean heat reservoirs. The carbon cycle model is a 4-box model, with the atmosphere, shallow ocean, deep ocean, and terrestrial carbon. 

The economic model is based on the Kaya identity, which decomposes CO2 emissions into population, GDP/capita, energy intensity of GDP, and carbon intensity of energy. It allows for temperature-related climate damages to both GDP and the growth rate of GDP.

This model was originally created by Bob Kopp - https://insightmaker.com/user/16029 (Rutgers University) in support of the SESYNC Climate Learning Project.

Steve Conrad (Simon Fraser University) modified the model to include emission/development/and carbon targets for the use by ENV 221.
Simulation of MTBF with controls   F(t) = 1 - e ^ -λt   Where    • F(t) is the probability of failure    • λ is the failure rate in 1/time unit (1/h, for example)   • t is the observed service life (h, for example)  The inverse curve is the trust time On the right the increase in failures brings its
Simulation of MTBF with controls

F(t) = 1 - e ^ -λt 
Where  
• F(t) is the probability of failure  
• λ is the failure rate in 1/time unit (1/h, for example) 
• t is the observed service life (h, for example)

The inverse curve is the trust time
On the right the increase in failures brings its inverse which is loss of trust and move into suspicion and lack of confidence.
This can be seen in strategic social applications with those who put economy before providing the priorities of the basic living infrastructures for all.

This applies to policies and strategic decisions as well as physical equipment.
A) Equipment wears out through friction and preventive maintenance can increase the useful lifetime, 
B) Policies/working practices/guidelines have to be updated to reflect changes in the external environment and eventually be replaced when for instance a population rises too large (constitutional changes are required to keep pace with evolution, e.g. the concepts of the ancient Greeks, 3000 years ago, who based their thoughts on a small population cannot be applied in 2013 except where populations can be contained into productive working communities with balanced profit and loss centers to ensure sustainability)

Early Life
If we follow the slope from the leftmost start to where it begins to flatten out this can be considered the first period. The first period is characterized by a decreasing failure rate. It is what occurs during the “early life” of a population of units. The weaker units fail leaving a population that is more rigorous.

Useful Life
The next period is the flat bottom portion of the graph. It is called the “useful life” period. Failures occur more in a random sequence during this time. It is difficult to predict which failure mode will occur, but the rate of failures is predictable. Notice the constant slope.  

Wearout
The third period begins at the point where the slope begins to increase and extends to the rightmost end of the graph. This is what happens when units become old and begin to fail at an increasing rate. It is called the “wearout” period. 
This model shows how a persistent pollutant such as mercury or DDT can be bioamplified along a trophic chain to levels that result in reduction of top predator populations.
This model shows how a persistent pollutant such as mercury or DDT can be bioamplified along a trophic chain to levels that result in reduction of top predator populations.
Simple model to illustrate   algal  ,   growth based on primary production of Phytoplankton as a state variable, forced by light and nutrients, running for a yearly period.  Phytoplankton growth based on on Steele's and Michaelis-Menten equations), where:   Primary Production=(([Pmax]*[I]/[Iopt]*exp
Simple model to illustrate   algal  ,   growth based on primary production of Phytoplankton as a state variable, forced by light and nutrients, running for a yearly period.

Phytoplankton growth based on on Steele's and Michaelis-Menten equations), where: 

Primary Production=(([Pmax]*[I]/[Iopt]*exp(1-[I]/[Iopt])*[S])/([Ks]+[S]))

Pmax: Maximum production (d-1)
I: Light energy at depth of interest (uE m-2 s-1)
Iopt: Light energy at which Pmax occurs (uE m-2 s-1)
S: Nutrient concentration (umol N L-1)
Ks: Half saturation constant for nutrient (umol N L-1).

Further developments:
- Nutrients as state variable in cycle with detritus from phytoplankton and oyster biomass.
- Light limited by the concentration of phytoplankton.
- Temperature effect on phytoplankton and Oyster growth.

  Biogas, model  as well birefineray option to seperate c02 , chp from bogas model are proposed
This stock and flow diagram provides a broad description of the key nutrient pathways (N and P) that exist in a dune-lake system subject to external loadings emanating from intensive agriculture.
This stock and flow diagram provides a broad description of the key nutrient pathways (N and P) that exist in a dune-lake system subject to external loadings emanating from intensive agriculture.