Simple mass balance model for lakes, based on the Vollenweider equation:  dMw/dt = Min - sMw - Mout  The model was first used in the 1960s to determine the phosphorus concentration in lakes and reservoirs for eutrophication assessment.  This version adds diagenesis, using an extra state variable (ph
Simple mass balance model for lakes, based on the Vollenweider equation:

dMw/dt = Min - sMw - Mout

The model was first used in the 1960s to determine the phosphorus concentration in lakes and reservoirs for eutrophication assessment.

This version adds diagenesis, using an extra state variable (phosphorus in the sediment) and incorporates desorption processes that release phosphorus trapped in the sediment back to the water column.

The temporal dynamics of the model simulate the typical development of pollution in time.

1. Low loading, low P concentration in lake
2. High loading, increasing P concentration in lake
3. Desorption rate is low, P in sediment increases
4. Measures implemented for source control, loading reduces
5. P in lake gradually decreases, but below a certain point, desorption increases, and lake P concentration does not improve
6. Recovery only occurs when the secondary load in the sediment is strongly reduced.
Two households with PV systems and Electric Vehicles, sharing a battery and connected to the grid. What are the advantages?
Two households with PV systems and Electric Vehicles, sharing a battery and connected to the grid. What are the advantages?


Collapse of the economy, not just recession, is now very likely. To give just one possible cause,
in the U.S. the fracking industry is in deep trouble. It is not only that most
fracking companies have never achieved a   free cash flow   (made a profit)
since the fracking boom started in 2008, but th
Collapse of the economy, not just recession, is now very likely. To give just one possible cause, in the U.S. the fracking industry is in deep trouble. It is not only that most fracking companies have never achieved a free cash flow (made a profit) since the fracking boom started in 2008, but that  an already very weak  and unprofitable oil industry cannot cope with extremely low oil prices. The result will be the imminent collapse of the industry. However, when the fracking industry collapses in the US, so will the American economy – and by extension, probably, the rest of the world economy. To grasp a second and far more serious threat it is vital to understand the phenomenon of ‘Global Dimming’. Industrial activity not only produces greenhouse gases, but emits also sulphur dioxide which converts to reflective sulphate aerosols in the atmosphere. Sulphate aerosols act like little mirrors that reflect sunlight back into space, cooling the atmosphere. But when economic activity stops, these aerosols (unlike carbon dioxide) drop out of the atmosphere, adding perhaps as much as 1° C to global average temperatures. This can happen in a very short period time, and when it does mankind will be bereft of any means to mitigate the furious onslaught of an out-of-control and merciless climate. The data and the unrelenting dynamic of the viral pandemic paint bleak picture.  As events unfold in the next few months,  we may discover that it is too late to act,  that our reign on this planet has, indeed,  come to an abrupt end?  
Simple model of the global economy, the global carbon cycle, and planetary energy balance.    The planetary energy balance model is a two-box model, with shallow and deep ocean heat reservoirs. The carbon cycle model is a 4-box model, with the atmosphere, shallow ocean, deep ocean, and terrestrial c
Simple model of the global economy, the global carbon cycle, and planetary energy balance.

The planetary energy balance model is a two-box model, with shallow and deep ocean heat reservoirs. The carbon cycle model is a 4-box model, with the atmosphere, shallow ocean, deep ocean, and terrestrial carbon. 

The economic model is based on the Kaya identity, which decomposes CO2 emissions into population, GDP/capita, energy intensity of GDP, and carbon intensity of energy. It allows for temperature-related climate damages to both GDP and the growth rate of GDP.

This model was originally created by Bob Kopp (Rutgers University) in support of the SESYNC Climate Learning Project.
all pictures sourced from google images
all pictures sourced from google images

This model provides a dynamic simulation of the Sverdrup (1953) paper on the vernal blooming of phytoplankton.  The model simulates the dynamics of the mixed layer over the year, and illustrates how it's depth variation leads to conditions that trigger the spring bloom. In order for the bloom to occ
This model provides a dynamic simulation of the Sverdrup (1953) paper on the vernal blooming of phytoplankton.

The model simulates the dynamics of the mixed layer over the year, and illustrates how it's depth variation leads to conditions that trigger the spring bloom. In order for the bloom to occur, production of algae in the water column must exceed respiration.

This can only occur if vertical mixing cannot transport algae into deeper, darker water, for long periods, where they are unable to grow.

Sverdrup, H.U., 1953. On conditions for the vernal blooming of phytoplankton. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Exp. Mer, 18: 287-295
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:  dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)  Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-se
This model implements the one-dimensional version of the advection-dispersion equation for an estuary. The equation is:

dS/dt = (1/A)d(QS)/dx - (1/A)d(EA)/dx(dS/dx) (Eq. 1)

Where S: salinity (or any other constituent such as chlorophyll or dissolved oxygen), (e.g. kg m-3); t: time (s); A: cross-sectional area (m2); Q: river flow (m3 s-1); x: length of box (m); E: dispersion coefficient (m2 s-1).

For a given length delta x, Adx = V, the box volume. For a set value of Q, the equation becomes:

VdS/dt = QdS - (d(EA)/dx) dS (Eq. 2)

EA/x, i.e. (m2 X m2) / (m s) = E(b), the bulk dispersion coefficient, units in m3 s-1, i.e. a flow, equivalent to Q

At steady state, dS/dt = 0, therefore we can rewrite Eq. 2 for one estuarine box as:

Q(Sr-Se)=E(b)r,e(Sr-Se)-E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 3)

Where Sr: river salinity (=0), Se: mean estuary salinity; Ss: mean ocean salinity

E(b)r,e: dispersion coefficient between river and estuary, and E(b)e,s: dispersion coefficient between the estuary and ocean.

By definition the value of E(b)r,e is zero, otherwise we are not at the head (upstream limit of salt intrusion) of the estuary. Likewise Sr is zero, otherwise we're not in the river. Therefore:

QSe=E(b)e,s(Se-Ss) (Eq. 4)

At steady state

E(b)e,s = QSe/(Se-Ss) (Eq 5)

The longitudinal dispersion simulates the turbulent mixiing of water in the estuary during flood and ebb, which supplies salt water to the estuary on the flood tide, and make the sea a little more brackish on the ebb.

You can use the upper slider to turn off dispersion (set to zero), and see that if the tidal wave did not mix with the estuary water due to turbulence, the estuary would quickly become a freshwater system.

The lower slider allows you to simulate a variable river flow, and understand how dispersion compensates for changes in freshwater input.
This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly
referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out
in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until
around the 1990s.  

 The cotton industry expanded dramatically in Central America
after WW2,
This model is an attempt to simulate what is commonly referred to as the “pesticide treadmill” in agriculture and how it played out in the cotton industry in Central America after the Second World War until around the 1990s.

The cotton industry expanded dramatically in Central America after WW2, increasing from 20,000 hectares to 463,000 in the late 1970s. This expansion was accompanied by a huge increase in industrial pesticide application which would eventually become the downfall of the industry.

The primary pest for cotton production, bol weevil, became increasingly resistant to chemical pesticides as they were applied each year. The application of pesticides also caused new pests to appear, such as leafworms, cotton aphids and whitefly, which in turn further fuelled increased application of pesticides.

The treadmill resulted in massive increases in pesticide applications: in the early years they were only applied a few times per season, but this application rose to up to 40 applications per season by the 1970s; accounting for over 50% of the costs of production in some regions.

The skyrocketing costs associated with increasing pesticide use were one of the key factors that led to the dramatic decline of the cotton industry in Central America: decreasing from its peak in the 1970s to less than 100,000 hectares in the 1990s. “In its wake, economic ruin and environmental devastation were left” as once thriving towns became ghost towns, and once fertile soils were wasted, eroded and abandoned (Lappe, 1998).

Sources: Douglas L. Murray (1994), Cultivating Crisis: The Human Cost of Pesticides in Latin America, pp35-41; Francis Moore Lappe et al (1998), World Hunger: 12 Myths, 2nd Edition, pp54-55.

 Fig 3.1 from Jorgen Randers  book  2052 a Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years

Fig 3.1 from Jorgen Randers book 2052 a Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years

Daisyworld is a classic model of planetary feedbacks, due to Andrew Watson and James Lovelock (1983). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisyworld.
Daisyworld is a classic model of planetary feedbacks, due to Andrew Watson and James Lovelock (1983). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisyworld.
From Schluter et al 2017  article  A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems COMSeS2017  video .   See also Balke and Gilbert 2014 JASSS  article  How do agents make decisions? (recommended by Kurt Kreuger U of S)
From Schluter et al 2017 article A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems COMSeS2017 video. See also Balke and Gilbert 2014 JASSS article How do agents make decisions? (recommended by Kurt Kreuger U of S)
7 10 months ago
My AP Environmental Homework for the Cats Over Borneo Assignment
My AP Environmental Homework for the Cats Over Borneo Assignment
Primitives for Watershed modeling project. Click Clone Insight at the top right to make a copy that you can edit.  The converter in this file contains precipitation for Tucson only. Tucson watersheds are Arroyo Chico, Canada Agua, and Lower Canada del Oro.
Primitives for Watershed modeling project. Click Clone Insight at the top right to make a copy that you can edit.

The converter in this file contains precipitation for Tucson only. Tucson watersheds are Arroyo Chico, Canada Agua, and Lower Canada del Oro.
72 6 months ago
 The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors. 
 Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amou

The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors.

Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amount of non-renewable resources (which could occur through the development of better exploration technologies) improve our future? Also, experiment with the start date of a low birth-rate, environmentally focused policy.

OVERSHOOT GROWTH GOES INTO TURBULENT CHAOTIC DESTRUCTION  The existing global capitalistic growth paradigm is totally flawed  The chaotic turbulence is the result of the concept of infinite bigness this has been the destructive influence on all empires and now shown up by Feigenbaum numbers and Dunb
OVERSHOOT GROWTH GOES INTO TURBULENT CHAOTIC DESTRUCTION

The existing global capitalistic growth paradigm is totally flawed

The chaotic turbulence is the result of the concept of infinite bigness this has been the destructive influence on all empires and now shown up by Feigenbaum numbers and Dunbar numbers for neural netwoirks

See Guy Lakeman Bubble Theory for more details on keeping systems within finite limited size working capacity containers (villages communities)

Primitives for Watershed modeling project. Click Clone Insight at the top right to make a copy that you can edit.  The converter in this file contains precipitation for Phoenix only.
Primitives for Watershed modeling project. Click Clone Insight at the top right to make a copy that you can edit.

The converter in this file contains precipitation for Phoenix only.
32 6 months ago
This model illustrates predator prey interactions using real-life data of wolf and moose populations on the Isle Royale. It was "cloned" from a model that InsightMaker provides to its users, at  https://insightmaker.com/insight/2068/Isle-Royale-Predator-Prey-Interactions  Thanks Scott Fortmann-Roe.
This model illustrates predator prey interactions using real-life data of wolf and moose populations on the Isle Royale. It was "cloned" from a model that InsightMaker provides to its users, at
https://insightmaker.com/insight/2068/Isle-Royale-Predator-Prey-Interactions
Thanks Scott Fortmann-Roe.

I've created a Mathematica file that replicates the model, at
http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/2018spring/mat375/mathematica/Moose-n-Wolf-InsightMaker.nb

It allows one to experiment with adjusting the initial number of moose and wolves on the island.

I used steepest descent in Mathematica to optimize the parameters, with my objective data being the ratio of wolves to moose. You can try my (admittedly) kludgy code, at
http://www.nku.edu/~longa/classes/2018spring/mat375/mathematica/Moose-n-Wolf-InsightMaker-BestFit.nb

{WolfBirthRateFactorStart,
WolfDeathRateStart,
MooseBirthRateStart,
MooseDeathRateFactorStart,
moStart,
woStart} =
{0.000267409,
0.239821,
0.269755,
0.0113679,
591,
23.};

This model shows how a persistent pollutant such as mercury or DDT can be bioamplified along a trophic chain to levels that result in reduction of top predator populations.
This model shows how a persistent pollutant such as mercury or DDT can be bioamplified along a trophic chain to levels that result in reduction of top predator populations.
   THE 2018 MODEL (BY GUY LAKEMAN) EMPHASIZES THE PEAK IN POLLUTION BEING CREATED BY OVERPOPULATION.  WITH THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF ARABLE LAND NOW BEING 1.5 TIMES OVER A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (PASSED IN 1990) AND NOW INCREASING IN LOSS OF HUMAN SUSTAINABILITY DUE TO SEA RISE AND EXTREME GLOBAL WATER R

THE 2018 MODEL (BY GUY LAKEMAN) EMPHASIZES THE PEAK IN POLLUTION BEING CREATED BY OVERPOPULATION.
WITH THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF ARABLE LAND NOW BEING 1.5 TIMES OVER A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (PASSED IN 1990) AND NOW INCREASING IN LOSS OF HUMAN SUSTAINABILITY DUE TO SEA RISE AND EXTREME GLOBAL WATER RELOCATION IN WEATHER CHANGES IN FLOODS AND DROUGHTS AND EXTENDED TROPICAL AND HORSE LATTITUDE CYCLONE ACTIVITY AROUND HADLEY CELLS

The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors.

THIS MODEL BY GUY LAKEMAN, FROM METRICS OBTAINED USING A MORE COMPREHENSIVE VENSIM SOFTWARE MODEL, SHOWS CURRENT CONDITIONS CREATED BY THE LATEST WEATHER EXTREMES AND LOSS OF ARABLE LAND BY THE  ALBEDO EFECT MELTING THE POLAR CAPS TOGETHER WITH NORTHERN JETSTREAM SHIFT NORTHWARDS, AND A NECESSITY TO ACT BEFORE THERE IS HUGE SUFFERING.
BY SETTING THE NEW ECOLOGICAL POLICIES TO 2015 WE CAN SEE THAT SOME POPULATIONS CAN BE SAVED BUT CITIES WILL SUFFER MOST. 
CURRENT MARKET SATURATION PLATEAU OF SOLID PRODUCTS AND BEHAVIORAL SINK FACTORS ARE ALSO ADDED

Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amount of non-renewable resources (which could occur through the development of better exploration technologies) improve our future? Also, experiment with the start date of a low birth-rate, environmentally focused policy.

 The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors.  
 Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amo

The World3 model is a detailed simulation of human population growth from 1900 into the future. It includes many environmental and demographic factors.


Use the sliders to experiment with the initial amount of non-renewable resources to see how these affect the simulation. Does increasing the amount of non-renewable resources (which could occur through the development of better exploration technologies) improve our future? Also, experiment with the start date of a low birth-rate, environmentally focused policy.

 This stock and flow diagram is a working draft of a conceptual model of a dune-lake system in the Northland region of New Zealand.

This stock and flow diagram is a working draft of a conceptual model of a dune-lake system in the Northland region of New Zealand.