Modelling of the SARS-Cov-2 viral outbreak using an SEIR model plus specific extensions to model demand for health and care resources.     The model includes biths and deaths, and migration to accommodate import and export of infected individuals from other areas.     Healthcare resources identifie
Modelling of the SARS-Cov-2 viral outbreak using an SEIR model plus specific extensions to model demand for health and care resources.

The model includes biths and deaths, and migration to accommodate import and export of infected individuals from other areas.

Healthcare resources identifies need for hospital beds and critical care.

The model is uses arrays to reflect the different impacts of modelled parameters by age and sex.
Initial data from: Italian data [ link ], as of Mar 28  Incubation estimation [ link ]      Model focuses on outbreak dynamics and control, this version ignores symptom onset to hospital admission and the rest of recovery dynamics.
Initial data from:
Italian data [link], as of Mar 28
Incubation estimation [link

Model focuses on outbreak dynamics and control, this version ignores symptom onset to hospital admission and the rest of recovery dynamics.
     El Salvador     Tamaño población inicial: 6,400,000  Unidad de cuidados intensivos disponibles: 2000  Casos confirmados hasta 13/10/2020: 30,480  Casos fallecidos hasta 13/10/2020: 899   Fuente: https://covid19.gob.sv/

El Salvador
  • Tamaño población inicial: 6,400,000
  • Unidad de cuidados intensivos disponibles: 2000
  • Casos confirmados hasta 13/10/2020: 30,480
  • Casos fallecidos hasta 13/10/2020: 899
Fuente: https://covid19.gob.sv/


This model shows the COVID-19 outbreaks in Burnie and the Government intervention to alleviate the crisis and also how is the intervention affect the economy.    It is assumed that the Government intervention is triggered when the COVID-19 case is equal to or more than 10.      Government interventi
This model shows the COVID-19 outbreaks in Burnie and the Government intervention to alleviate the crisis and also how is the intervention affect the economy.

It is assumed that the Government intervention is triggered when the COVID-19 case is equal to or more than 10. 

Government intervention - lock down the state, suppress the development of COVID-19 effectively. It is related to most of people stay at home to reduce the exposure in public area.
On the other hand, it also bring the economy of Burnie in the recession, as no tourists, no dining out activities and decrease in money spending in the city.
Simulation einer Pandemie (Corona) am Beispiel der Bevölkerungssituation in Hamburg (1,9mio Einwohner, variabel)
Simulation einer Pandemie (Corona) am Beispiel der Bevölkerungssituation in Hamburg (1,9mio Einwohner, variabel)
10 months ago
Description:   This is a system dynamics model of COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie which shows the process of infections and how  government responses, impact on the local economy.       First part is outbreak model, we can know that when people is infected, there are two situations. One is that he recov
Description:

This is a system dynamics model of COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie which shows the process of infections and how  government responses, impact on the local economy.  

First part is outbreak model, we can know that when people is infected, there are two situations. One is that he recovers from  treatment, but even if he recovered, the immunity loss rate increase, makes him to become infected again. The other situation is death. In this outbreak, the government's health policies (ban on non-essential trips, closure of non-essential retailers, limits on public gatherings and quarantine )  help to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 new cases. Moreover,  government legislation is dependent on  number of COVID-19 cases and testing rates. 

 Second part: the model of Govt legislation and economic impact. Gov policy can help to reduce infection rate and local economy at same way. The increase of number of COVID-19 cases has a negative impact on local Tourism industry and economic growth rate. On the other hand, Govt legislation also can be change when reported COVID-19 case are less or equal to 10.






 If no attempt is made to eradicate SARS-CoV-2 it will eventually
become endemic, ineradicable, at a high never-ending cost to world in terms of economic
growth, human health and lives. The current strategy adopted by most
governments is to impose  restrictive
measures when the virus threatens to ov

If no attempt is made to eradicate SARS-CoV-2 it will eventually become endemic, ineradicable, at a high never-ending cost to world in terms of economic growth, human health and lives. The current strategy adopted by most governments is to impose  restrictive measures when the virus threatens to overwhelm hospital services and to relax these restrictions as this danger recedes. This is short-sighted. It cannot eliminate the highly infectious delta variant, which has an estimated R0-value of between 6 & 9. Periodic lockdowns will be hard to avoid in the future.

However, eradication is possible, herd immunity can be achieved quickly worldwide, reducing the R0 permanently to below 1, which will lead to the disappearance of the virus. Critical in achieving this is Ivermectin, a medicine that is cheap,  readily available and can be manufactured by most countries. A recent meta study has shown that Ivermectin, prophylactically employed, can prevent infection with the virus  by 86 % on average – very similar to the efficacy of vaccines. Eradication will require employment of all the instruments shown in the graph: future generations do not have to live with this plague. 

This stock-flow simulation model is to show Covid-19 virus spread rate, sources of spreading and safety measures followed by all the countries affected around the world. The simulation also aims at predicting for how much more period of time the virus will persist, how many people could recover at w
This stock-flow simulation model is to show Covid-19 virus spread rate, sources of spreading and safety measures followed by all the countries affected around the world.
The simulation also aims at predicting for how much more period of time the virus will persist, how many people could recover at what kind of rate and also about the virus toughness dependence based on its excessive speed, giving rise to bigger numbers day-by-day.
 Dieses Causal
Loop Diagramm (CLD) versucht in vereinfachter Weisse die Wesentliche Dynamik des
Mars-CoV-2 zu veranschaulichen. Der Motor hinter den Infektionen ist offensichtlich
eine selbstverstärkende Rückkopplungsschleife, und ausschlaggebend in diesem
Bezug ist der R-Wert. Wenn der R-Wert unter

Dieses Causal Loop Diagramm (CLD) versucht in vereinfachter Weisse die Wesentliche Dynamik des Mars-CoV-2 zu veranschaulichen. Der Motor hinter den Infektionen ist offensichtlich eine selbstverstärkende Rückkopplungsschleife, und ausschlaggebend in diesem Bezug ist der R-Wert. Wenn der R-Wert unter 1 liegt, dann heisst das, dass eine infizierte Person während des Zeitraums, in dem sie infektiös ist, weniger als eine andere Person infiziert.  Liegt der Wert über 1, dann steckt die Infizierte mehr als eine andere Person an, und das Virus verbreitet sich exponentiell. Die Schleifen, die blaue Pfeile enthalten, sind negative Rückkopplungsschleifen – sie bremsen die Verbreitung des Virus. Das Diagramm suggeriert, dass der R-Wert als Schlüssel zur Kontrolle der Verbreitung des Virus dienen könnte. Sollte der Wert über 1 steigen, so müssten  Schutzmassnahem eingeführt werden. Ist der Wert unter 1, dann sind die negativen Schleifen dominierend und einige Massnahmen könnten gelockert werden. 

This model is comparing healthy and sick residents in Burnie, Tasmania after the Covid-19 Outbreak in 2020. It will also show how the Burnie economy is effected by the disease, how the Government Health Policies are implemented and how they are enforced.  This model is based on the SIR, Susceptible,
This model is comparing healthy and sick residents in Burnie, Tasmania after the Covid-19 Outbreak in 2020. It will also show how the Burnie economy is effected by the disease, how the Government Health Policies are implemented and how they are enforced.

This model is based on the SIR, Susceptible, Infection, Recovery (or Removed) These are the three possible states related to the members of the Burnie population when a contagious decease spreads.

The Government/Government Health Policy, played a big part in the successful decrease in Covid-19 infections. The Government enforced the following.
- No travel (interstate or international)
- Isolation within the residents homes
- Social distancing by 1.5m
- Quarantine
- Non essential companies to be temporarily closed
- Limitations on public gatherings
- And limits on time and kilometers aloud to travel from ones home within a local community

This resulted in lower reported infection rates of Covid-19 and higher recovery rates.

In my opinion:
When the first case was reported the Government could have been even faster to enforce these rules to decrease the fatality rates further for the Burnie, population.  

Assumption: Government policies were only triggered when 10 cases were recorded.
Also, more cases that had been recorded effected the economic growth during this time.

Interesting Findings: In the simulation it shows as the death rates increases towards the end of the week, the rate of testing goes down. You would think that the government would have enforced a higher testing rate over the duration of this time to decrease the number of infections, exposed which would increase the recovery rates faster and more efficiently.  

Figures have been determined by the population of Burnie being 19,380 at the time of assignment.

  Overview:
  

 The
COVID-19 Outbreak in Burnie Tasmania shows the process of COVID-19 outbreak,
the impacts of government policy on both the COVID-19 outbreak and the GDP
growth in Burnie.  

  Assumptions:  

 We set some
variables at fix rates, including the immunity loss rate, recovery rate, de

Overview:

The COVID-19 Outbreak in Burnie Tasmania shows the process of COVID-19 outbreak, the impacts of government policy on both the COVID-19 outbreak and the GDP growth in Burnie.

Assumptions:

We set some variables at fix rates, including the immunity loss rate, recovery rate, death rate, infection rate and case impact rate, as they usually depend on the individual health conditions and social activities.

It should be noticed that we set the rate of recovery, which is 0.7, is higher than that of immunity loss rate, which is 0.5, so, the number of susceptible could be reduced over time.

Adjustments: (please compare the numbers at week 52)

Step 1: Set all the variables at minimum values and simulate

results: Number of Infected – 135; Recovered – 218; Cases – 597; Death – 18,175; GDP – 10,879.

Step 2: Increase the variables of Health Policy, Quarantine, and Travel Restriction to 0.03, others keep the same as step 1, and simulate

results: Number of Infected – 166 (up); Recovered – 249 (up); Cases – 554 (down); Death – 18,077 (down); GDP – 824 (down).

So, the increase of health policy, quarantine and travel restriction will help increase recovery, decrease confirmed cases, decrease death, but also decrease GDP.

Step 3: Increase the variables of Testing Rate to 0.4, others keep the same as step 2, and simulate

results: Number of Infected – 152 (down); Recovered – 243 (down); Cases – 1022 (up); Death – 17,625 (down); GDP – 824 (same).

So, the increase of testing rate will help to increase the confirmed cases.

Step 4: Change GDP Growth Rate to 0.14, Tourism Growth Rate to 0.02, others keep the same as step 3, and simulate

results: Number of Infected – 152 (same); Recovered – 243 (same); Cases – 1022 (same); Death – 17,625 (same); GDP – 6,632 (up).

So, the increase of GDP growth rate and tourism growth rate will helps to improve the GDP in Burnie.

 Aquí tenemos un modelo SEIR básico e investigaremos qué cambios serían apropiados para modelar el Coronavirus 2019

Aquí tenemos un modelo SEIR básico e investigaremos qué cambios serían apropiados para modelar el Coronavirus 2019

 SARS-CoV-19 spread  in different countries - please  adjust variables accordingly        Italy     elderly population (>65): 0.228  estimated undetected cases factor: 4-11  starting population size: 60 000 000  high blood pressure: 0.32 (gbe-bund)  heart disease: 0.04 (statista)        Germany
SARS-CoV-19 spread in different countries
- please adjust variables accordingly

Italy
  • elderly population (>65): 0.228
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 4-11
  • starting population size: 60 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.32 (gbe-bund)
  • heart disease: 0.04 (statista)

Germany
  • elderly population (>65): 0.195 (bpb)
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 2-3 (deutschlandfunk)
  • starting population size: 83 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.26 (gbe-bund)
  • heart disease: 0.2-0.28 (herzstiftung)

France
  • elderly population (>65): 0.183 (statista)
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 3-5
  • starting population size: 65 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.3 (fondation-recherche-cardio-vasculaire)
  • heart disease: 0.1-0.2 (oecd)

As you wish
  • numbers of encounters/day: 1 = quarantine, 2-3 = practicing social distancing, 4-6 = heavy social life, 7-9 = not caring at all
  • practicing preventive measures (ie. washing hands regularly, not touching your face etc.): 0.1 (nobody does anything) - 1 (very strictly)
  • government elucidation: 0.1 (very bad) - 1 (highly transparent and educating)
  • Immunity rate (due to lacking data): 0 (you can't get immune) - 1 (once you had it you'll never get it again)

Key
  • Healthy: People are not infected with SARS-CoV-19 but could still get it
  • Infected: People have been infected and developed the disease COVID-19
  • Recovered: People just have recovered from COVID-19 and can't get it again in this stage
  • Dead: People died because of COVID-19
  • Immune: People got immune and can't get the disease again
 SARS-CoV-19 spread  in different countries - please  adjust variables accordingly        Italy     elderly population (>65): 0.228  estimated undetected cases factor: 4-11  starting population size: 60 000 000  high blood pressure: 0.32 (gbe-bund)  heart disease: 0.04 (statista)  free intensive
SARS-CoV-19 spread in different countries
- please adjust variables accordingly

Italy
  • elderly population (>65): 0.228
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 4-11
  • starting population size: 60 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.32 (gbe-bund)
  • heart disease: 0.04 (statista)
  • free intensive care units: 3 100

Germany
  • elderly population (>65): 0.195 (bpb)
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 2-3 (deutschlandfunk)
  • starting population size: 83 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.26 (gbe-bund)
  • heart disease: 0.2-0.28 (herzstiftung)
  • free intensive care units: 5 880

France
  • elderly population (>65): 0.183 (statista)
  • estimated undetected cases factor: 3-5
  • starting population size: 67 000 000
  • high blood pressure: 0.3 (fondation-recherche-cardio-vasculaire)
  • heart disease: 0.1-0.2 (oecd)
  • free intensive care units: 3 000

As you wish
  • numbers of encounters/day: 1 = quarantine, 2-3 = practicing social distancing, 4-6 = heavy social life, 7-9 = not caring at all // default 2
  • practicing preventive measures (ie. washing hands regularly, not touching your face etc.): 0.1 (nobody does anything) - 1 (very strictly) // default 0.8
  • government elucidation: 0.1 (very bad) - 1 (highly transparent and educating) // default 0.9
  • Immunity rate (due to lacking data): 0 (you can't get immune) - 1 (once you had it you'll never get it again) // default 0.4

Key
  • Healthy: People are not infected with SARS-CoV-19 but could still get it
  • Infected: People have been infected and developed the disease COVID-19
  • Recovered: People just have recovered from COVID-19 and can't get it again in this stage
  • Dead: People died because of COVID-19
  • Immune: People got immune and can't get the disease again
  • Critical recovery percentage: Chance of survival with no special medical treatment
  COVID-19 outbreak model brief description        The model stimulated the COVID-19 outbreak at Burnie in Tasmania. The pandemic spread was driven by infection rate, death rate, recovery rate, and government policy.     The government policy reduces the infection in some way, but it also decreases
COVID-19 outbreak model brief description

The model stimulated the COVID-19 outbreak at Burnie in Tasmania. The pandemic spread was driven by infection rate, death rate, recovery rate, and government policy.

The government policy reduces the infection in some way, but it also decreases the physical industry. Online industry plays a vital role during the pandemic and brings more opportunities to the world economy. 

The vaccination directly reduces the infection rate. The national border will open as long as residents have been fully vaccinated. 

Assumption: 
The model was created based on different rates, including infection rate, death rate, testing rate and recovered rate. There will be difference between the real cases and the model. 

The model only list five elements of government policies embracing vaccination rate, national border and state border restrictions, public health orders, and business restrictions. Public health order includes social distance and residents should wear masks in high spread regions. 

This model only consider two industries which are physical industry, like manufacturer, retailers, or hospitality industries, and online industry. During the pandemic, employees star to work from home and students can have online class. Therefore, the model consider the COVID-19 has positive impact on online industry. 

Interesting insights:
The susceptible will decrease dramatically in first two weeks due to high infection rate and low recovery rate and government policy. After that, the number of susceptible will have a slight decline. 

The death toll and recovery rate was increased significantly in the first two weeks due to insufficient healthy response. And the trend will become mild as government policy works. 



   Explanation of the Model    This is a Model of COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie, Tasmania which shows the government actions in response to the pandemic COVID-19 and its affects on the Economy. The government health policy changes depending on the reported cases, which is a dependent upon the testing
Explanation of the Model
This is a Model of COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie, Tasmania which shows the government actions in response to the pandemic COVID-19 and its affects on the Economy. The government health policy changes depending on the reported cases, which is a dependent upon the testing rate. 

Assumptions
Lockdown and travel ban were the main factor in government policy. It negatively impacts on the Economic growth as individuals are not going out which is directly affects the business around the world, in this insight 'Burnie'. This reduces the economic growth and the factors positively effecting economic growth such as Tourism.

Government policies has a negative impact on Exposer of individuals. Moreover, it also has a negative impact on chances of infection when exposed as well as other general infection rate.
 

Interesting Insight 
There is a significant impact of test rating on COVID-19 outbreak. Higher rates increases the government involvement, which decreases cases as well as the total death. 
In contrast, lower testing rates increase the death rate and cases. 

Tourism which plays a avital role in Tasmanian Economy greatly affects the Economic Growth. The decline of Tourism in parts of Tasmania such as Burnie, would directly decrease the economy of Tasmania.


  
 Introduction; 
 This model shows COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie have some impact for local economy situation and government policy. The main government policy is lockdown during the spreading period which can help reduce the infected rate, and also increase the test scale to help susceptible confirm t

Introduction;

This model shows COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie have some impact for local economy situation and government policy. The main government policy is lockdown during the spreading period which can help reduce the infected rate, and also increase the test scale to help susceptible confirm their situation.


Variables;

Infection rate, Death rate, Recovery rate, test rate, susceptible, immunity rate, economy growth rate

These variables are influenced by different situation.


When cases over 10, government will implement lockdown policy.


Conclusion;

When cases increase too much , they will influence the economic situation.


Interesting insights:

If the recover rate is higher, more people will recover from the disease. It seems to be a positive sign. However, it would lead to a higher number of recovered people and more susceptible. As a result, there would be more cases, and would have a negative impact on the economic growth. 

  Overview:   Overall, this analysis showed a COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie, the government policies to curtail that, and some of the impacts it is having on the Burnie economy.      Variables   The simulation made use of the variables such as; Covid-19: (1): Infection rate. (2): Recovery rate. (3): D

Overview:

Overall, this analysis showed a COVID-19 outbreak in Burnie, the government policies to curtail that, and some of the impacts it is having on the Burnie economy.


Variables

The simulation made use of the variables such as; Covid-19: (1): Infection rate. (2): Recovery rate. (3): Death rate. (4): Immunity loss rate etc. 


Assumptions:

From the model, it is apparent that government health policies directly affect the economic output of Burnie. A better health policy has proven to have a better economic condition for Burnie and verse versa.


In the COVID-19 model, some variables are set at fixed rates, including the immunity loss rate, recovery rate, death rate, infection rate, and case impact rate, as this is normally influenced by the individual health conditions and social activities.

Moving forward, we decided to set the recovery rate to 0.7, which is a rate above the immunity loss rate of 0.5, so, the number of susceptible could be diminished over time.


Step 1: Try to set all value variables at their lowest point and then stimulate. 

 

Outcome: the number of those Infected are– 135; Recovered – 218; Cases – 597; Death – 18,175; GDP – 10,879.


Step 2: Try to increase the variables of Health Policy, Quarantine, and Travel Restriction to 0.03, others keep the same as step 1, and simulate


Outcome: The number of those Infected – 166 (up); Recovered – 249 (up); Cases – 554 (down); Death – 18,077 (down); GDP – 824 (down).


With this analysis, it is obvious that the increase of health policy, quarantine, and travel restriction will assist in increase recovery rate, a decrease in confirmed cases, a reduction in death cases or fatality rate, but a decrease in Burnie GDP.


Step 3: Enlarge the Testing Rate to 0.4, variable, others, maintain the same as step 2, and simulate


Outcome: It can be seen that the number of Infected is down to – 152; those recovered down to – 243; overall cases up to – 1022; those that died down to–17,625; while the GDP remains – 824.


In this step, it is apparent that the increase of testing rate will assist to increase the confirmed cases.


Step 4: Try to change the GDP Growth Rate to 0.14, then Tourism Growth Rate to 0.02, others keep the same as step 3, and then simulate the model


Outcome: what happens is that the Infected number – 152 remains the same; Recovered rate– 243 the same; Number of Cases – 1022 (same); Death – 17,625 (same); but the GDP goes up to– 6,632. 


This final step made it obvious that the increase of GDP growth rate and tourism growth rate will help to improve the overall GDP performance of Burnie's economy.

 Modelling the demand for health and care resources resulting from the Covid-19 outbreak using an SEIR model.
Modelling the demand for health and care resources resulting from the Covid-19 outbreak using an SEIR model.

 This is the first in a series of models that explore the dynamics of and policy impacts on infectious diseases. This basic  model divides the population into three categories -- Susceptible (S), Infectious (I) and Recovered (R).       Press the simulate button to run the model and see what happens
This is the first in a series of models that explore the dynamics of and policy impacts on infectious diseases. This basic  model divides the population into three categories -- Susceptible (S), Infectious (I) and Recovered (R).  

Press the simulate button to run the model and see what happens at different values of the Reproduction Number (R0).

The second model that includes a simple test and isolate policy can be found here.
 ​Modelo epidemiológico simples   SIR: Susceptíveis - Infectados - Recuperados         Clique aqui  para ver um vídeo com a apresentação sobre a construção e uso deste modelo.  É recomendável ver o vídeo num computador de mesa para se poder ver os detalhes do modelo.          Dados diários sobre  in
​Modelo epidemiológico simples
SIR: Susceptíveis - Infectados - Recuperados

Clique aqui para ver um vídeo com a apresentação sobre a construção e uso deste modelo.  É recomendável ver o vídeo num computador de mesa para se poder ver os detalhes do modelo.


Dados diários sobre infectadosrecuperados e óbitos para diversos países (incluindo o Brasil) podem ser obtidos aqui neste site
Dados diários para o município de Juiz de Fora podem ser obtidos no site da Prefeitura.
The model is built to demonstrates how Burnie Tasmania can deal with a new COVID-19 outbreaks, taking government policies and economic effects into account. The susceptible people are the local Burnie residents. If residents were infected, they would either recovered or dead. However, even they do r
The model is built to demonstrates how Burnie Tasmania can deal with a new COVID-19 outbreaks, taking government policies and economic effects into account.
The susceptible people are the local Burnie residents. If residents were infected, they would either recovered or dead. However, even they do recover, there is a chance that they will get infected again if immunity loss occurs.
From the simulation result we can see that with the implementation of local government policies including travel ban and social distancing,  the number of infected people will decrease. The number of recovered people will increase in the first 5 weeks but then experience a decrease.
In addition, with the implementation of local government policy, the economic environment in Burnie will be relatively stable when the number of COVID-19 cases is stable.
  This model aims to show that how Tasmania government's Covid-19 policy can address the spread of the pandemic and in what way these policy can damage the economy.     This model assumes that if the COVID-19 cases are more than 10, the government will take action such as quarantine and lockdown at
This model aims to show that how Tasmania government's Covid-19 policy can address the spread of the pandemic and in what way these policy can damage the economy.

This model assumes that if the COVID-19 cases are more than 10, the government will take action such as quarantine and lockdown at the area. These policy can indirectly affect the local economy in many different way. At the same time, strict policy may be essential for combating Covid-19.

From the simulation of the model, we can clearly see that the economy of Burine will be steady increase when government successfully reduces the COVID-19 cased and make it spreading slower.

Interesting finding: In this pandemic, the testing rate and the recovery rate are important to stop Covid-19 spreading. Once the cases of Covid-19 less than 10, the government might stop intervention and the economy of Burnie will back to normal.