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​The probability density function (PDF) of the normal distribution or Bell Curve Gaussian Distribution by Guy Lakeman

Guy Lakeman
​The probability density function (PDF) of the normal distribution or Bell Curve of Normal or Gaussian Distribution is the mean or expectation of the distribution (and also its median and mode). 
The parameter is its standard deviation with its variance then, A random variable with a Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed and is called a normal deviate.However, those who enjoy upskirts are called deviants and have a variable distribution :) 
A random variable with a Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed and is called a normal deviate.
If mu = 0 and sigma = 1
If the Higher Education Numbers Are Increased then the group decision making ability of society would be raised above that of a middle teenager as it is nowBUT Governments can control children by using bad parenting techniques, pandering to the pleasure principle, so they will make higher education more and more difficult as they are doing

85% of the population has a qualification level equal or below a 12th grader, 17 year old ... the chance of finding someone with any sense is low (~1 in 6) and the outcome of them being chosen by those who are uneducated in the policies they are to decide is even more rare !!!
Experience means little if you don't have enough brain to analyse it
Democracy is only as good as the ability of the voters to FULLY understand the implications of the policies on which they vote., both context and the various perspectives.   National voting of unqualified voters on specific policy issues is the sign of corrupt manipulation.
Democracy:  Where a group allows the decision ability of a teenager to decide on a choice of mis-representatives who are unqualified to make judgement on social policies that affect the lives of millions.The kind of children who would vote for King Kong who can hold a girl in one hand and swat fighter jets out of teh sky off the tallest building, doesn't have a brain cell or thought to call his own but has a nice smile and offers little girls sweets.


MATHS Statistics Physics Science Ecology Climate Weather Intelligence Education Probability Density Function Normal Bell Curve Gaussian Distribution Democracy Voting Politics Policy

  • 1 year 8 months ago

Urban Dynamics

Geoff McDonnell

An adaptation of the URBAN1 Model from Navid Ghaffarzadegan, John Lyneis and George P Richardson's How small system dynamics models can help the public policy process. System Dynamics Review 27: 22-44 (2011) Conference version at http://bit.ly/HlxtZj  and LA Alfeld and AK Graham's Introduction to Urban Dynamics 1974 p 195.

An element of Perspectives: The Foundation of Understanding and Insights for Effective Action. Register at http://www.systemswiki.org/

Health Care Policy Regional

  • 1 year 10 months ago

Climate Sector Boundary Diagram of Guy Lakeman

Guy Lakeman
​Climate Sector Boundary Diagram By Guy Lakeman Climate, Weather, Ecology, Economics, Population, Welfare, Energy, Policy, CO2, Carbon Cycle, GHG (green house gasses, combined effects)

As general population is composed of 85% with an education level of a 12 grader or less (a 17 year old), a simple block of components concerning the health of the planet needs to be broken down into simple blocks.Perhaps this picture will show the basics on which to vote for a sustained healthy futureDemocracy is only as good as the ability of the voters to FULLY understand the implications of the policies on which they vote., both context and the various perspectives.   National voting of unqualified voters on specific policy issues is the sign of corrupt manipulation.

Climate Weather Ecology Economics Population Welfare Energy Policy CO2 Carbon GHG Green House Gas

  • 1 year 8 months ago

Swamping Insight

Geoff McDonnell

This common archetype of systems that include relapse or recidivism allows exploration of the unintended effects of increasing upstream capacity and swamping downstream capacity. The increase in the relapse rate eventually returns to swamp upstream capacity as well. A social welfare example, based on a TANF case study, from How Small System Dynamics Models Can Help the Policy Process. N. Ghaffarzadegan, J. Lyneis, GP Richardson. System Dynamics Review 27,1 (2011) 22-44 abstract Conference version at http://bit.ly/HlxtZj

Health Care Policy Social

  • 1 year 1 month ago

Version 8B with story: Calibrated Student-Home-Teachers-Classroom-LEA-Spending

Yolande Tra
This version 8B of the CAPABILITY DEMONSTRATION model. A net Benefit ROI has been added. The Compare results feature allows comparison of alternative intervention portfolios.  Note that the net causal interactions have been effectively captured in a very scoped and/or simplified format.  Relative magnitudes and durations of impact remain in need of further data & adjustment (calibration). In the interests of maintaining steady progress and respecting budget & time constraints, significant simplifying assumptions have been made: assumptions that mitigate both completeness & accuracy of the outputs.  This model meets the criteria for a Capability demonstration model, but should not be taken as complete or realistic in terms of specific magnitudes of effect or sufficient build out of causal dynamics.  Rather, the model demonstrates the interplay of a minimum set of causal forces on a net student progress construct -- as informed and extrapolated from the non-causal research literature. Provided further interest and funding, this  basic capability model may further developed and built out to: higher provenance levels -- coupled with increased factorization, rigorous causal inclusion and improved parameterization.

Education Policy Causal Dynamic Intervention Impact

  • 4 months 2 days ago

MANAGING FULL EMPLOYMENT

Hanns-Jürgen Hodann

POTENTIAL GDP is a level of economic activity at which there is full employment. If the economy is not operating at its potential then the  private sector has failed to invested enough to generate the necessary growth nor have net exports created enough aggregate demand. This only leaves the government to close the spending gap. Fortunately a government that disposes of its own freely floating currency disposes of two powerful tools -  spending in excess of tax revenue and tax reductions - to ensure that the gap between the actual economic activity and potential GDP is quickly closed. Achieving the  full employment that prevailed for 30 years between 1945 and 1975 in most western economies is still possible! 

Policy Full Employment Economics

  • 3 months 1 week ago

Version 10: Hattie Calibrated Education Scenario Tool Capability Demonstration

Robert L. Brown
Despite a mature field of inquiry, frustrated educational policy makers face a crisis characterized by little to no clear research-based guidance and significant budget limitations --  in the face of too often marginal or unexpectedly deleterious achievement impacts. As such, education performance has been acknowledged as a complex system and a general call in the literature for causal models has been sounded. This modeling effort represents a strident first step in the development of an evidence-based causal hypothesis: an hypothesis that captures the widely acknowledged complex interactions and multitude of cited influencing factors. This non-piecemeal, causal, reflection of extant knowledge engages a neuro-cognitive definition of students.  Through capture of complex dynamics, it enables comparison of different mixes of interventions to estimate net academic achievement impact for the lifetime of a single cohort of students. Results nominally capture counter-intuitive unintended consequences: consequences that too often render policy interventions effete. Results are indexed on Hattie Effect Sizes, but rely on research identified causal mechanisms for effect propagation. Note that the net causal interactions have been effectively captured in a very scoped and/or simplified format.  Relative magnitudes of impact have been  roughly adjusted to Hattie Ranking Standards (calibration): a non-causal evidence source. This is a demonstration model and seeks to exemplify content that would be engaged in a full or sufficient model development effort.  Budget & time constraints required significant simplifying assumptions. These assumptions mitigate both the completeness & accuracy of the outputs. Features serve to symbolize & illustrate the value and benefits of causal modeling as a performance tool.

Education Policy Causal Dynamic Intervention Impact

  • 1 month 1 week ago

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